When I was in Kingston, I noted that almost every house was surrounded by thick cement walls topped with ironwork spikes clearly designed to prevent unwanted access. With the addition of sandbag barricades and concertina wire as shown in these police photos published by the Jamaica Observer, any police incursion necessitating going from house to house in that section of Kingston would be quite difficult. The Tivoli Gardens neighborhood has been involved in several violent confrontations with police over the years. The Jamaica Gleaner notes that notorious shoot-outs with police have occurred there in 2008, 2005, 2001, and 1997. The 2001 incident left 27 dead. After the 2005 incident, the head of the Jamaican Defense Force called Tivoli Gardens, 'the mother of all garrisons.'
21st Century Authoritarianism
2 days ago