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Abstract : In this monograph Major General Alvaro de Souza Pinheiro contributes to the discussion of urban guerrillas, their impact on society, and the role of the armed forces in countering criminal elements. The rise of urban guerrillas is a result of an evolution in command and control capabilities, weapons, and doctrine that has given them strong influence over the daily lives of citizens living in neighborhoods where government support and control is limited or absent. The favelas (ghettos, slums) of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo provide the setting for General Alvaro's monograph. What makes the monograph compelling is that this Brazilian story has universal application in many locales that are under-governed and under-supported by constituted authorities. Criminal groups like the Red Command and Third Command have been able to thrive in the favelas because of ineffective policing and lack of government interest. These Brazilian gangs have filled the void with their own form of governance. Criminal urban guerrillas have latched onto revolutionary doctrine, such as the "Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla" (a translation is appended), so as to give political legitimacy to their lawlessness. These gangs terrorize the residents of the favelas, holding them hostage to criminal exploits while keeping government legitimacy and security in check. As in the United States, when the general welfare of civil society is at risk, the President may call upon the armed forces to aid the police or take control. A notable difference between the two countries is the expansive role that Brazilian armed forces can take. Chapters are as follows: Introduction; Foundations of Brazilian Organized Criminal Factions; The PCC, Brazil's Most Powerful Organized Crime Faction; The Main Criminal Factions in Rio de Janeiro and Connections with the PCC (Comando Vermelho, Terceiro Comando Puro, and Amigos dos Amigos); Brazilian Organized Crime Foreign Connections; and The Armed Forces' Role.
Descriptors : *GUERRILLA WARFARE, *MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *LAW ENFORCEMENT, *URBAN WARFARE, *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN), *BRAZIL, *CRIMINALS, PUBLIC SAFETY, DRUG SMUGGLING, CRIMES, PROPAGANDA, SABOTAGE, PRISONERS, PRISONS, PARAGUAY, COLOMBIA, TERRORISM, POLICE, MILITARY TACTICS, HOSTAGES, ORGANIZATIONS, LEADERSHIP
Subject Categories : SOCIOLOGY AND LAW
MILITARY FORCES AND ORGANIZATIONS
Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
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